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Population: 400 Million*
  • Entertainment: Robert de Borron collects Roman de Merlin and Fabliaux
    Bard music in Ireland
    Icelandic sagas begin to be written
    Hartmann von Aue writes Der arme Heinrich a German epic poem
    "Faux bourdon" style in English music
    Sitar invented in India
    Cymbals introduced as musical instrument
    "Carmina Burana" the German collection of Latin monastic songs gathered (music in 1937)
    Aristotle's writings become available to Latin scholars – writings banned by Papacy until 1250
    Greenlander's Saga written
  • Fashion: Engagement rings come into fashion
  • Medicine: Alcohol used for medical purposes
  • Religion: Development of Jewish cabalistic philosophy in southern Europe
    Islam begins to replace Indian religions
  • Technology: Compass first used in Europe
    English develop longbow
  • Deaths: Chinese philosopher Chu-His


  • Egypt: Failure of Nile to rise brings famine and cannibalism
  • Ethiopia: King Lalibela cuts churches from rocks
  • Mali: Empire of Ghana replaced with the Empire of Mali as Moslems decline - Ghana falls to Almoravide
  • Morocco: Jews in Morocco given some privileges
  • Zimbabwe: Great Enclosure built


  • US Area: Hohokam of AZ build religious platforms
    Cahokia in N America (temple mounds) at height of power
    Decline of Pueblo people
    Cliff apartments in Colorado
    Hunac Ceel revolts against Maya of Chichén Itzá and sets up new capital at Mayapan
    Construction of temple mounds at Moundsville, AL
  • Mexico: Aztecs enter valley of Mexico
  • South America: Incas in Peru settle around Cuzco under Manco Capac, empire expands
    Peru's Chimú people conquer coastal valleys and begin imperial expansion


  • Cambodia: End of Cambodia's Khmer civilization
  • China: First explosive rockets and defensive use of gunpowder against Mongols
  • India: End Khmer civilization
    Start of the spread of Islam and decline of Buddhism
  • Tibet: Tibet becomes part of Mongol-ruled China


  • General: Peace of Le Goulet between England and France
  • Austria: Duke Leopold VI of Austria builds Burg (castle) in Vienna
  • England: Llywelyn the Great seizes Anglesey
    Cambridge U founded
    Early Gothic architecture in England
  • France: Paris becomes modern capital
    University of Paris founded
    Reims Cathedral begun
  • Iceland: Icelandic sagas begin to be written
  • Ireland: Starvation due to cold
  • Italian States: Italian towns have become city-states
  • Lithuania: Start of Grand Duchy of Lithania

Middle East

  • Byzantine Empire: 60,000 Italian merchants live and work in Constantinople


  • Tui Tonga monarchy builds platforms in Tonga
  • Maori legend reports meteor and crater
  • First Chiefdoms in Polynesia
  • Tahitians migrate to Hawaii and win control over earlier settlers