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Population: 432 Million*
  • Climate: Start of little ice age to 1860 or 1890
  • Entertainment: Aucassin et Nicolette famous French love story written
    Giovanni Pisano created "Madonna"
  • Finance: Italian merchants develop double-entry bookkeeping
  • Medicine: Urine analysis becomes diagnostic means
    Eyeglasses first used commonly in Europe
  • Religion: Jubilee year pronounced by Pope Boniface VIII
  • Technology: European monks invent escapement clock
  • Travel: Marco Polo refers to mythical southern continent


  • Ife culture of W Africa produces brasses
  • East African city-states founded
  • Illustrated manuscripts produced in Ethiopia


  • Incas begin to expand throughout Andes and Peru
  • Anasazi Cliff Dwellers decline, plus Freemont in Utah from drought
  • Aztec empire starts
  • Decline of the Mayan civilization


  • China: Development of Chinese drama
  • Japan: Minamoto shoguns in Japan diminish as Ashikaga shoguns rule in this era


  • General: Temporary end of European slave trade
    Some date Renaissance from this period
    Trade fairs at Bruges, Antwerp, Lyons and Geneva
    Start of Bubonic plague outbreak lasting until the 1720s
  • England: Tower of London completed
    Edward I invades Scotland
    Building of St. Mary the Virgin at Oxford
    Decorated phase of English Gothic architecture starts
  • France: Professional musical entertainers in France - "Jongleurs"
  • German States: Apothecaries become popular in German cities
  • Italian States: Bologna University appoints Dorotea Bocchi as professor of medicine and Maria di Novella as professor and head of mathematics - early female scholars
  • Poland: Wenceslas II of Bohemia elected king of Poland

Middle East

  • Osman I founds Ottoman dynasty in Turkey


  • Hawaiians start to develop class structure as a result of economic growth
  • Stone temples (marae) erected on Raratonga, Cook Islands
  • Huge stone statues erected on Easter Island
  • Second wave of Maoris migrate to New Zealand from the Marquesas Polynesia