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Population: 460 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers includes Erasmus Adagia book of proverbs,
    Art includes Hieronymus Bosch "Ship of Fools", Botticelli "Mystic Nativity", Michelangelo "Madonna and Child"
    Music includes Ottavio de' Petrucci - prints music with moveable type, Josquin des Pres at court of Louis VII as composer, Songs of mastersingers reformed to accept secular in Nuremberg
  • Fashion: End of early renaissance – start of middle (high) renaissance
    End of period of mostly Gothic architecture and start of period of Renaissance architecture
  • Geography: Juan de la Cosa creates map of new world
  • Medicine: Book of first herbal medicines created
    First recorded Caesarean operation performed on living woman by pig gelder Jakob Nufer in Switzerland
  • Religion: Pope Alexander VI proclaims jubilee year and imposes a title for crusade against Turks
  • Science: da Vinci proposes that marine fossils not carried by the flood
  • Technology: Black-lead pencils used in England
    First manufacture of faience and majolica potteries
    Germany - Peter Henlein invents the pocket watch
    Leonardo Da Vinci conducts flight experiments
  • Deaths: Alfonso of Naples murdered, Diaz drowns near Cape of Good Hope


  • General: Agriculture replaces hunting in Africa
  • West Africa: Songhai empire in W Africa expands, trade aids growth of Hausa states in W Africa
    Malia Empire replaced by Songhai Empire in Africa


  • General: Vespucci and De Ojeda return on their voyage that discovered Amazon river
    Gaspar de Corte-Real lands in New World
    Incan and Aztec empires decline
  • Brazil: Blown off course on way to India - Cabral discovers Brazil and claims it for Portugal - trade links established
    Pinzon lands on Brazilian coast at Cape Santo Agostinho
  • Canada: Extinction of Norse Greenland colony
  • England: Fatal plague forces Henry VII and court to flee to Calais
  • North America: Mississippi Mound Culture declines in New World
    Apache and Navajo establish in SW U.S.
  • Peru: Inca ruler dies, war for throne
  • Scotland: Time of Scottish cannibal Sawney Beane clan


  • Burma: End of Mon kingdoms in Burma to 1700s
  • Japan: Tsunami


  • General: First regular postal connection between Vienna and Brussels
    Treaty of Granada Louis of France and Ferdinand of Spain divide Naples
  • Belgium: Antwerp Cathedral finished
  • England: First annual horserace meetings at Chester
    Wynken de Worde sets up printing press in Fleet Street London – street is center of printing for next 500 years
  • France: Louis XII claims both Naples and Milan and occupies them
    Game of real tennis becomes very popular in France
  • German States: (HRE) Diet of Augsburg establishes Council of Regency for administering the Holy Roman Empire and divides Germany into six "circles" or regions
    First edition of German Schwank book
    Silver guilders introduced in Germany and remain in use in Austria until 1892
  • Holland: Dutch miracle play created
  • Italian States: Lodovico Sforza recovers Milan from the French – two months later the town is reconquered – Sforza captured and imprisoned in France
    Alfonso of Naples (second husband of Lucrezia Borgia) murdered
    Aldus of Venice founds academy for study of Greek classics and invents italics
    First commercial colleges founded in Venice
    Louis XII claims both Naples and Milan and occupies them
    Louis and Ferdinand V agree to divide Naples
  • Spain: Dom Miguel – heir to thrones of Spain and Portugal dies leaving Juana and Philip heirs to Spain
    University of Valencia founded
    Ferdinand of Aragon suppresses Moorish revolt in Granada
    Columbus arrested, put in irons – brought to Spain and rehabilitated
  • Portugal: Manuel of Portugal marries Maria Infanta of Spain


  • Easter Island: village of oval stone houses built on Easter Island