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Population: 477 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Machiavelli, Melanchthon (the Lutheran dogma)
    Art includes Lorenzo Lotto "Virgin and Child with Spain", Palma Becchio "Adoration"
  • Religion: Death of Pope Leo X (Giovanni de' Medici)
    Ignatius Loyola begins to formulate Exercitae
  • Deaths: Composer Josquin des Pres, Satirist Sebastian Brant, Navigator Ferdinand Magellan, Pope Leo X (Giovanni de' Medici) of malaria, Edward Stafford Duke of Buckingham (executed), King Manuel I of Portugal
    Explorer Juan Ponce de Leon


  • Brazil: Portugese begin to colonize Brazil in the reign of João III
  • Mexico: Disease ravages Mexico City
    Cortés encounters Tlaxcala nation north of Mexico City – first mention and Zapotec Kingdom near Oaxaca
    Hernán Cortés assumes control of Mexico after destruction of Aztec state – Moctezuma II taken prisoner
  • North America: Francisco de Gordillo explores American Atlantic up to South Carolina
  • South America: Cortes decimates Aztec empire
    Juan Ponce de Leon dies in conflict with natives


  • India: Famine in Sind
  • Philippines: Magellan killed in Philippines


  • General: France and Spain at war over claims to Italy to 1529
  • England: Edward Stafford Duke of Buckingham and potential claimant to the English throne executed by order of Henry VIII
    Pope Leo X confers title "Defender of the Faith" on King Henry VIII for article against Luther
    Famine in England increases prices and death
  • France: Manufacture of silk introduced to France
    France's Francis I orders reformers silenced
  • German States: Luther cross-examined before Diet of Worms by Cardinal Alexander – banned from HRE and begins German translation of the Bible
    Charles V condemns Luther at Diet of Worms - would have been burned, but saved by local leader Elector Frederick
    Saxon prince Frederick the Wise protects Luther
  • Holy Roman Empire: Charles V grants brother Ferdinand some Hapsburg possessions and rights in Austria – Ferdinand marries Anne of Hungary – Louis II of Hungary marries Mary of Austria
  • Hungary: Sultan Suleiman I conquers Belgrade – begins to invade Hungary
  • Portugal: King Manuel I of Portugal dies – son John III the Pious succeeds him
    Portugese Parliament ceases to meet
    Lisbon and Oporto licensed as monopoly ports for trade with Brazil
  • Sweden: Gustaf Eriksson – Gustav Vasa (future king Gustaf I of Sweden) leads Swedish resistance to Christian II and Danish rule

Middle East

  • Ottoman Empire: Sultan Suleiman I conquers Belgrade – begins to invade Hungary