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Population: 482 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Castiglione (book on courtly manners), Marco Girolamo Vida (poetic theory),
    Art includes Hans Holbein the Younger "Thomas More and his Family", Parmigianino "St. Gerome", Michelangelo's David has left arm broken off – pieces kept and new arm made
  • Medicine: Paracelsus lectures on medicine at University of Basel
    Theophrastus von Hohenheim rejects four humors and introduces chemotherapy
  • Religion: Anabaptists publish list of beliefs (Amish-like)
  • Deaths: Niccolo Machiavelli


  • Ethiopia: Adali chief Ahmed Gran attacks Ethiopia


  • North America: De Vaca explores Florida
  • Paraguay: Sebastian Cabot builds fortifications of Santa Espirtu
  • Peru: Smallpox


  • England: Famine
  • German States: First Protestant University founded at Marburg
    Plague outbreak
  • Holy Roman Empire: Troops of Charles V HRE (German and Spanish) sack Rome and capture Pope Clement VII
    Flemish composer Adrian Willaert made maestro at St. Mark's in Venice
  • Hungary: Reorganization of Hapsburg administration in Austria – Ferdinand crowned King of Bohemia in Prague and recognized as sole King of Hungary
  • Italian States: Troops of Charles V HRE (German and Spanish) sack Rome and capture Pope Clement VII - 4000 killed and art treasures looted
    Catherine de Medici (niece of Pope, age 8) threatened to be thrown into brothel
    Lutherans considering Rome the seat of anti-Christ – melt down gold
    Michelangelo's David has arm broken, but pieces kept and new arm made
  • Sweden: King Gustavus Vasa brings reformation