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Population: 483 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Antonio de Guevara (education of Spanish princes), Antonio Telesio (Mythological tragedy), Tyndale's Old Testament published
    Art includes Albrecht Altdorger "Ballte of Alexander", Lorenzo Lotto "Christ and the Woman taken in Adultery"
  • Medicine: Italian physician Giovanni Battista da Monte introduces in Padua clinical examinations of patients at the sickbed
  • Religion: Second Diet of Speyer opens – the Lutheran minority protests against decisions of Catholic majority and gain the name "Protestants"
    Luther and Zwingli hold disputation on the Eucharist at Marburg
    Melchior Hoffman, an Anabaptist, publishes that the world will end in 1533 (dies in 1543)
  • Science: Manual on alchemy published in Worms
  • Deaths: Dramatist Juan del Encina, Poet William Dunbar, Dramatist John Skelton, Sculptor Andrea Sansovino, Madrigal composer Bartolommeo Spontone,


  • General: Domination of Songhai empire
  • Algeria: Ottoman Turks capture Algeria
  • Ethiopia: Muslims defeat Christian Ethiopians at battle of Shimbra Kure – overrun kingdom until 1543 when defeated by Portuguese


  • Mexico: Bernardino de Sahagun starts Franciscan mission in Mexico


  • Japan: Tendai monks massacre Nicheren Buddhists in Kyoto
  • Sumatra: French reach Sumatra


  • General: Treaty of Cambrai between Francis I and Charles V – France renounces claims to Italy -"Ladies' Peace" joined by England
    Protestant rebellions in Germany and Switzerland
    Peace of Cambrai between Italy and France
    Treaty of Barcelona between Pope Clement VII and Charles V
  • England: Cardinal Wolsey accused of treason for not annulling marriage, but dies - falls from power – Sir Thomas More made Lord Chancellor
    Henry VIII's reformation Parliament severs ties with Church of Rome
    Henry VIII's second divorce trial hits stalemate
  • France: King Francis I founds College de France
    France renounces claims on Italy
  • German States: Sweating sickness throughout northern Germany
  • Holy Roman Empire: Ottoman Turks attack Austria – lay siege in Vienna but are forced to raise it
  • Italian States: Women first appear on Italian stages
    Michelangelo builds fortifications of Florence
    Alessandro de Medici heads Medici family

Middle East

  • Ottoman Empire: Ottoman Turks under Suleiman II attack Austria – lay siege in Vienna but are forced to raise it
    Ottoman Turks capture Algeria