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Population: 484 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Claude Garamond creates book by King Francis I, Melanchthon Apologia, Peter Martyr (discoveries in the New World)
    Art includes Corregio "Adoration of the Shepherds", Titian "Cardinal Ippolito de Medici" (portrait),
  • Geography: Regnier Gemma Frisius suggests that longitude can be found by means of difference of times
  • Religion: Catholic Church orders abolition of all innovations to its doctrines at Diet of Augsburg
    Philip Melanchthon draws up tenets of Lutheranism and presented at Diet of Ausburg "Ausburg Confession"
  • Science: Georg Agricola writes first treatise on mineralogy
    Copernicus publishes
    Brunfels Herbarum Vivae Eicones becomes best-selling herbal
  • Technology: Workman's bench come into use
    German Frisius proposes prime meridian
  • Deaths: Poet Jacopo Sannazaro, Humanist Willibald Pirckheimer, Cardinal Wolsey - dies on way to treason trial


  • General: Portuguese organize trans-Atlantic slave trade


  • General: Portuguese organize trans-Atlantic slave trade
    Cabeza de Vaca explores N Mexico and Brazil
    Inca begin using code of knots tied in strings of different thicknesses
    Measles in Peru and Mexico
  • Brazil: Portuguese colonize - first major Portugese colony established at São Vicente


  • India: Mogul Emperor Babar (the Afghani) dies


  • General: General use of the spinning wheel in Europe
  • Belgium: Antwerp exchange founded
  • England: Death of Cardinal Wolsey after arrest as a traitor
    Pre-Protestant Henry VIII participates in book banning and burning
  • France: Francis I marries Eleanor of Portugal – widow of Manuel I and sister of Charles V
  • German States: Confederation of Augsburg prepared by Melanchthon signed by Protestant princes – they form Schmalkaldic League against Emperor Charles V and his Catholic allies
    German Protestants publish 28 articles of faith to avoid split with Church
    Peace of Barcelona between Pope and Germanic troops
  • Holland: St. Felix' Flood in Netherlands kills over 100,000 - dikes fail and country inundated
  • Holy Roman Empire: Charles V crowned HRE and King of Italy by Pope Clement VII at Bologna – last imperial coronation by a pope
    Criminal code and police regulations for HRE written
  • Italian States: Barnabite order of Catholics set up in Milan for plague victims
    Charles (France) rules Italy
  • Malta: Knights of St. John reestablished in Malta by Charles V - ousted from Rhodes by Turks and go to Malta
  • Portugal: Portuguese organize trans-Atlantic slave trade
  • Spain: Typhus in Tuscany Spain
  • Switzerland: Civil war in Switzerland between Catholics and Protestant cantons – Protestants defeated