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Population: 484 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Clement Marot (poetry), Erasmus (complete edition of Aristotle's works), Sir Thomas Elyot (education for statesmen), Bearus Rhenanus (history of Germany)
    Art includes Parmigianino "Cupid Carving His Bow", Titian "The Magdalen"
  • Religion: Official beginning of Schmalkaldic league for protestant protection
  • Science: "Great comet" (Halley's later) arouses wave of superstition
  • Deaths: Reformer Urlrich Zwingli, Painter Andrea del Sarto, Artist Hans Brugkmair, Sculptor Tilman Riemenschneider


  • Brazil: Nicolas Villegagnon discovers site of Rio de Janeiro
  • South America: Pizarro begins conquest of Incas leading soldiers across Panama to Peru
    First contact of Europeans with Kingdom of Chimor in Peru and Ecuador


  • England: King Henry recognized by Supreme Head of Church
  • France: End of Duchy of Brittany in France
  • Portugal: Earthquake kills 30,000
    Inquisition starts
  • Spain: University of Granada founded
  • Switzerland: War between Protestant Zurich and Catholic cantons – Zwingli killed at Battle of Kappel – forest cantons defeated