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Population: 486 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include John Haywood (interlude), Nicholas Udall Floures for Latine Speaking, Johannes Ott
    Art includes Hans Holbein the Younger "The Ambassadors", Titian (portrait of Charles V)
    Music includes first madrigals by Verdelot, Arcadelt, and others in Rome
  • Mathematics: German mathematician Gemma Frisius introduces new method of surveying
  • Medicine: First lunatic asylums (no medical attention) created
  • Technology: Manual for production of paints and inks published in Augsburg
  • Deaths: Sculptor Viet Stoss, Painter Lucas van Leyden, Poet Lodovico Ariosto, Francisco Pizzaro orders execution by strangulation of the last Inca


  • Peru: Pizarro captures Cuzco and executes Inca of Peru – Atahualpa executed for crimes against Spain
  • Puerto Rico: Three cyclones hit Puerto Rico


  • England: Pope excommunicates Henry VIII – Henry VIII secretly marries Anne Boleyn - Elizabeth born
    Thomas Cranmer becomes Archbishop of Canterbury – declares marriage between Henry and Catherine of Aragon void - Anne crowned queen
  • Holy Roman Empire: Suleiman (Ottoman) makes peace with Ferdinand of Habsburgs (HRE - Austria)
  • Russia: Death of Basil III and start of reign of Czar Ivan IV the terrible - age 3

Middle East

  • Ottoman Empire: Suleiman (Ottoman) makes peace with Ferdinand of Habsburgs (HRE - Austria)