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Population: 491 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Calvin (Commentary of book of Romans), Erasmus Proverbs or Adages (translated by Richard Taverner), Melanchthon (official principles), Allegorical plays collected and performed at Ghent
    Art includes Holbein "Anne of Cleves"
    Music includes Georg Forster (collection of secular songs)
  • Geography: Olaus Magnus creates map of the world
  • Religion: Society of Jesus set up under Catholic Church (Jesuits)
  • Science: Olaus Magnus publishes map of ocean waters and sea creatures
  • Deaths: Nanak - founder of Sikhism


  • Cuba: Annexation by Spain
  • North America: Hernando de Soto explores Florida and Mississippi River
    Father Marcos de Niza explores SW and brags of cities of gold
    Spanish set up printing press in Mexico City – first in America
  • Peru: Smallpox outbreak


  • Burma: End of Kingdom of Pegu in Burma
  • India: Death of Nanak, founder of Sikhism
    Suri Afghans of Bihar under Sher Shah rebel and reconquer Mughal territory (Sur dynasty)


  • England: Marriage treaty between Henry VIII and fourth wife Anne of Cleves
    Monasteries finally closed in England
    Statute of Six Articles to standardize Church of England
    Plague outbreak
  • France: First public lottery held
  • German States: First Christmas tree at Strasbourg Cathedral
    Truce of Frankfurt between Charles V and Protestant Princes
  • Italian States: Michelangelo replans the Capitol in Rome

Middle East