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Population: 492 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Sir Davis Lindsay (morality play), Augustinus Steuchus De perenni philisiphia, Menno Simmons publishes "Book of Basics" to lead Anabaptists into ways of non-violence
    Art includes Titian "A Young Englishman"
  • Medicine: Michael Servetus discovers pulmonary circulation of the blood
  • Religion: Order of the Jesuits (Society of Jesus) confirmed by Pope Paul III
  • Science: Ether produced from alcohol and sulfuric acid
  • Deaths: Humanist philosopher Juan Louis Vives, Painter Francesco Mazzola (Parmigianio), Politician Thomas Cromwell (executed), Historian Francesco Guiccardini


  • North America: Spanish arrive in California
    G. L. de Cardenas discovers the Grand Canyon in Arizona
    De Soto explores American South-east - After arson kills 2500 natives, de Soto's expedition ambushed by Choctaw and 200 Spaniards killed


  • India: Afghan rebel Sher Shah becomes Emperor of Delhi


  • General: Treaty between Venice and Turkey signed at Constantinople
  • Belgium: Antwerp becomes most important commercial city
  • England: Official marriage between Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves – annulled by convocation of Canterbury and York – Henry marries Catherine Howard – his fifth wife
    Thomas Cromwell executed – Lord Treasurer Norfolk – uncle of Catherine Howard – becomes successor
    Henry VIII founds regius professorships of Greek, Hebrew, divinity, civil law, and physics at Oxford and Cambridge
    (Little) Jack Horner sent to deliver deeds of church properties to King Henry VIII concealed in Christmas pie to fool robbers – Horner stole and kept one
  • France: François Clouet becomes court painter to King Francis I
  • German States: German fashion for men is to have jackets with huge padded shoulders and brightly colored doublets
  • Italian States: Philip son of Charles V made Duke of Milan
    Famine on Sardinia
  • Low Countries: Gerhardus Mercator finishes his first map of world

Middle East

  • Ottoman Empire: Treaty between Venice and Turkey signed at Constantinople