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Population: 493 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Giambattista Cinzio Giraldi (classical Italian tragedy),
    Art includes Michelangelo "The Last Judgement"
  • Religion: Loyola elected General of the Jesuits
  • Deaths: Conquistador Francisco Pizarro, Alchemist and physician Paracelsus, Painter Rosso Fiorentino, Artist Jean Clouet, Sculptor Damian Forment, Composer Wulfard Hellinck,


  • General: Last of Cartier's voyages in new world
  • Brazil: Francisco de Orellana descends Amazon River
  • North America: Coronado takes expedition across New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas
    Hernando de Soto discovers Mississippi river
  • Peru: Death of Francisco Pizarro the Spanish conquerer of Peru


  • England: Queen Catherine Howard sent to the Tower on suspicion of immoral conduct – paramours Thomas Culpepper and Dereham executed
  • Hungary: Suleiman I takes Buda and annexes Hungary defeating Habsburg leader Ferdinand – see 1686
  • Ireland: Irish parliament declares Henry VIII king of Ireland and head of Irish Church - Ireland becomes kingdom
  • Scotland: John Knox leads Calvinist reformation in Scotland
  • Switzerland: Leadership of John Calvin in Geneva begins - introduces puritan Protestant society

Middle East

  • Ottoman Empire: Suleiman I takes Buda and annexes Hungary – see 1686