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Population: 497 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Aretino (Italian tragedy), Hans Sachs (German tragedy), Etienne de la Boetie Le Discours de la servitude volontaire, First Welsh book printed, John Heywood (proverbs)
    Art includes Cranach (portrait of Martin Luther), Titian (portrait of Pope Paul III and nephews)
  • Medicine: Italian physician Girolamo Fracastoro states view on infections and epidemics
    Girolamo Fracastoro publishes describing typhus as contagion
    First pharmacopoeia by Valerius Cordus
  • Science: Flemish geographer Gerardus Mercator states that the earth has a magnetic pole
    Danish nobleman Tycho Brahe studies astronomy
  • Deaths: Martin Luther, Cardinal David Beaton, Author Sir Thomas Elyot, Etienne Dolet hanged and burnt at the stake as heretic and blasphemer for printing works of humanists such as Erasmus, Protestants murder persecutor Cardinal Beaton of Scotland


  • General: End of the Mayan period Post-Classical
  • Mexico: Typhus
  • Peru: Typhus
  • Venezuela: Abortive efforts to find the legendary El Dorado


  • Burma: Tabinshwehti conquers Pegu from Mons and becomes king of all Burma


  • England: English Navy Board founded
    Cardinal College in Oxford refounded as Christ Church
    England gets rid of monasteries
  • France: Pierre Lescot begins to build the Louvre in Paris
  • German States: Civil war in Germany between Emperor Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League
  • Holy Roman Empire: Fortune of the Fuggers of Augsburg valued at four million gulders
  • Italian States: Michelangelo designs the dome and undertakes completion of St. Peter's in Rome
  • Scotland: Protestants murder persecutor Cardinal Beaton of Scotland

Middle East

  • Ottoman Empire: Turks occupy Moldavia (Eastern Europe)