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Population: 499 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Friedrich Dedekind (sataire against the coarseness of the times), Joachim du Bellay (French classic poetry), Siegmund von Herberstein (report on Russia)
    Music includes Adrian Willaert - combines Dutch and Italian musical styles
  • Religion: Death of Pope Paul III nicknamed "the skirt-chaser"
  • Science: Melanchthon objects to theories of Copernicus
  • Deaths: Author Margaret of Navarre, Pope Paul III, Artist Sodoma,


  • Thome de Souza founds Sao Salvador
  • Guatemala: Guatemalan volcano "Aqua" unleashes lake on Spanish capital
  • South America: Jesuit missionaries in South America


  • Japan: Start of mission of Jesuit preacher St. Francis Xavier to Japan – first Christians


  • General: Court jesters including dwarfs and cripples appear in Europe
  • England: British Book of Common Prayer published - Prayer Book Rebellion in Exeter results in corpse dangling 4 years until Mary takes the throne
    Cranmer's "Book of Common Prayer" set to music
    Act of Uniformity makes Catholic mass illegal
  • Italian States: Piero Ligorio creates Villa d'Este in Tivoli
    Palladio makes Basilica in Vicenza
  • Russia: Ivan IV calls for first national assembly in Russia
  • Switzerland: Consensus Tigurinus agreement between Calvin and Zwinglians on Holy Communion in Zurich