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Population: 500 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Pierre de Ronsard Odes, Olaus Petrie (earliest Swedish stage play), Giovanni Francesco (fairy tales), Nicholas Udall (earliest English comedy Ralph Rosier Dosier), Thomas Cranmer (defense of Catholic Sacrament),
    Art includes Benvenuto Cellini sculpture "Perseus", Lorenzo Lotto "A Nobleman in His Study", Michelangelo "Deposition from the Cross", Titian (portrait of daughter Lavinia), Giorgo Vasari "Lives of the Artists",
    Music includes John Marbeck writes first musical setting of English liturgy
  • Fashion: Start of early Baroque
  • Mathematics: G.D. Rhaeticus creates trigonomic tables
  • Religion: Cardinal Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte becomes Pope Julius III (Possibly gay – has 17-year old friend appointed cardinal)
  • Science: Siegmund von Herberstein writes about fossils
  • Technology: Sealing wax first used


  • Brazil: Portuguese establish colonies in Brazil
    First slave-worked sugar plantations established
  • Mexico: Doña Luisa de Olveros reportedly kills her children and was hung in Mexico – her ghostly cries are La Llorona (The Wailing Woman)
  • North America: Spanish bring first beef cattle to North America


  • China: Mongols under Altan Khan invade N China
  • Japan: Start of early Japanese "Ukiyoe" painting


  • England: Sir William Cecil made English secretary of State
    Duke of Somerset deposed, replaced by John Dudley the Earl of Warwick who names self Duke of Northumberland
    First written reference to game of cricket (creag) in young Edward VI's wardrobe accounts
    Mary, Edward, and Elizabeth gather – and Protestant/Catholic feud rises between 13 year old King Edward and 34 year old half-sister Mary – Mary gets HRE into mix
    Plague in England to 1566
    St. Peter's of Westminster has funds appropriated to pay for repairs of St. Pauls Cathedral – literally robbing Peter to pay Paul
  • Finland: Helsinki founded by Swedes
  • Holy Roman Empire: HRE Charles V bans books by Protestants
  • Italian States: Palladio creates Palazzo Chiericati and Villa Rotunda in Vicenza
    Game of billiards played for first time in Italy
  • Spain: Spainish power begins to peak


  • New Zealand: Maoris in N and S islands of New Zealand build forts called "pa"