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Population: 502 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Pierre de Ronsard Amours volume I, Etienne Jodelle Cleopatre Captive (French classical tragedy),
    Art includes Titian (self portrait),
  • Medicine: Bartolommeo Eustachio writes "Tabulae anatomicae" mentioning Eustachian tube and valve
  • Deaths: Swedish reformer Olaus Petri, "Apostle of the Indies" and Jesuit leader St. Francis Xavier, Musical theorist Johannes Cochlaeus, Duke of Somerset or Warwick John Dudley


  • Francesco Lopez de Gomara – Cortez' secretary – writes General History of the Indians


  • General: Typhus outbreak on German France border
  • England: Second prayer book of Edward VI written
    Christ's Hospital in London founded by King Edward VI
    British burn books on geography and astronomy thought to be infected with magic
    End of England's Somerset regime as John Dudley gets public opinion against the Protector and he is deposed and executed. Dudley duke of Northumberland named protector, Persuades Edward to marry Lady Jane Grey (Protestant)
    King Edward dying – (maybe tuberculosis) Mary (his heir) intolerable to Edward – There were no male nephews or cousins, so he changed the rules to allow female rule – Originally Lady Jane to rule Lady Jane Grey named queen
  • France: France joins in war against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V - France takes Toul, Metz, and Verdun
  • German States: Revolt of German Princes against Charles V HRE, aided by Henry II of France forcing compromise of HRE
    Duke Maurice of Saxony gets HRE Charles V to grant religious freedoms
    Peace of Passau between Saxony and Holy Roman Empire
    Half of Imperial army wiped bout by typhus
  • Italian States: Collegium Germanicum of Rome founded by Jesuits
  • Russia: Ivan IV of Russia begins conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan from the Tartars and begins expansion in Siberia
  • Scotland: St. Andrew's Golf Club in Scotland founded – Mary Queen of Scots probably first woman golfer