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Population: 504 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Lewis Brecht Euripus play, Pierre de Ronsard Hymnes, Jorg Wiskram (collection of farce)
    Art includes Michelangelo's "Pieta", Tintoretto "St. George and the Dragon",
  • Medicine: Piemontese publishes medical recipies
  • Religion: Death of Cardinal Giovanni Maria del Monte – Pope Julius III – Cardinal Marcello Cervini Montefano elected Pope Marcellus II – died Apr 30 – Cardinal Giovanni Pietro Caraffa Capriglia elected Pope Paul IV
    Pope Paul IV orders wall built to create first Jewish ghetto
  • Science: Pierre Belon writes "L'Histoire de la nature des oyseaux"
  • Deaths: Naturalist Edward Wotton, Artist Barthel Bruyn, Painter Moretto, Pope Julius III, Pope Marcellus II


  • Ethiopia: Portuguese Jesuit missions instituted


  • General: Aztec dictionary published
  • Brazil: French colony founded on Bay of Rio de Janeiro
    Smallpox outbreak


  • Burma: End of Kingdom of Ava
  • China: Japanese pirates besiege Nanking
  • India: Akbar grandson of Babur becomes Mogul emperor to 1605


  • England: Building of Gray's Inn Hall in London started
    One of three protestant bishops burned at stake - Bishop John Hooper executed for Protestantism in Gloucester but pyre relit four times due to wet wood
    Bishop Stephen Gardiner hung after sending many Protestants to their deaths - To 1558 burning of heretics begins – about 300 including Thomas Cranmer
    John Foxe flees to exile and writes Acts and Monuments (Foxe's Book of Martyrs) labels Queen Mary as Bloody Mary – Mary's pregnancy found to be phantom pregnancy and now (age 39) thought to be barren - husband leaves England for Spain
    Parliament turns against Mary
    Sir Antony Kingston starts rebellion in Parliament
  • German States: Peace of Augsburg – Lutheran states to enjoy equal rights with Catholics - cities and states can decide religion
    Protestants seize Catholic properties
  • Holy Roman Empire: Emperor Charles V turns over government of Netherlands to son Philip
    Peace of Augsburg (See German States)
  • Russia: St. Basil's cathedral starts in Moscow
  • Scotland: John Knox returns to Scotland from his exile in Geneva
  • Spain: Tobacco brought for the first time from America to Spain