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Population: 505 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Juan de Avila Audi filia (ascetic Christian text), John Ponet (friend of Cranmer) A Short Treatise on Political Power (questioning right of royalty and approving assassination)
    Music includes Orlando di Lasso (first book of motets)
  • Science: Georg Bauer (Agricola)'s book on mineralogy published posthumously
    German book "De Re Metallica" on mining and mineralogy scientific but warns of underground demons
  • Deaths: English reformer Thomas Cranmer (burned at stake), Jesuit founder Ignatius Loyola, Author Pietro Aretino, Artist Pontormo, Dramatist Nicholas Udall, Artist Lorenzo Lotto, Humayun a Mughal emperor bowed to pray when hearing call to prayer and his foot catches in his robes and he falls down several flights of stairs to his death


  • Turks finish conquering North Africa


  • China: Deadliest earthquake hits Shaanxi China killing 830,000 est at 8 on scale
    Portuguese settle at Macao
  • India: Reign of Moghul emperor Akbar the Great begins
    Mughals under Akbar rout the Suri army (Hindus) at Panipat


  • General: Livonian War to 1582 with Poland Russia Sweden and Denmark regarding Balkan territories
  • Czechoslovakia: Jesuit Order established in Prague
  • England: Death of former Archbishop Thomas Cranmer the English reformer by burning at the stake (under "Bloody" Mary) - he declared monarchs as God's mouthpiece, but recanted, then recanted the recantation - declared Pope the anti-christ
    Cardinal Pole consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury
    Stationers' Company of London granted monopoly of printing
    Hanseatic trading privileges ends in England
  • France: Alliance between Pope Paul IV and Henry II
  • German States: Hans Sachs becomes leader of the Nuremberg Mastersingers
  • Holy Roman Empire: Enperor Charles V retires to monastery of Yuste - assigs Spain, Netherlands, Naples, Milan, and Franche-Comté to son Philip II and the Holy Roman Empire to brother Ferdinand II
  • Spain: Start of reign of Philip II - also of Italy

Middle East

  • Ottoman Empire: Suleiman's mosque in Constantinople finished