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Population: 507 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Jorge de Montemayor La Diana, Thomas Sackville Induction (Early Elizabethan lit), Mattias Flacius Ecclesiastica historica,
    Art includes Brueghel "Proverbs", Titian "Diana and Calliste"
  • Food: Ice cream accidentally discovered in Italy
  • Medicine: Realdo Colombo describes position and posture of human embryo
  • Religion: Death of Pope Paul IV – Giovanni Angelo de Medici elected Pope Pius IV
    Pope Pius IV issues Index of Prohibited Books - first best-seller list
  • Deaths: Composer Clement Janequin, Henry II of France (jousting), King Christian III of Denmark and Norway, Pope Paul IV, Painter at Japanese court Kano Motonobu, Composer Jachet da Mantova, Mathematician Adam Riese


  • North America: Hurricane wrecks five Spanish vessels near Pensecola, FL


  • General: Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis ends Italian wars between Spain and France - France gives up possessions except Toul Metz and Verdun – Spain controls most
    Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis where France gives up some Italian claims to Habsburgs
  • Denmark: Death of King Christian III of Denmark and Norway – Frederick II rules
  • England: Elizabeth becomes head of Church of England - Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity restore Protestant Church
    Elizabeth sought religious centrism and both extremes took umbrage - starts leaning Protestant doctrinally
    Robert Lord Dudley becomes Elizabeth I's favorite
    Elizabethan prayer book created
  • France: Death of Henry II of France killed in tournament while jousting (celebrating peace in Italy) and Catherine de Medici (wife) becomes regent of France – succeeded by son Francis II - The Cardinal of Guise takes control
  • Holland: Margaret of Parma sister of Philip II becomes Regent of Netherlands
  • Italian States: Inquisition reaches Florence – Cosimo Medici burns books as token
  • Scotland: Mary Queen of Scots - wife of Francis of France - assumes title of Queen of England
    Knox brings reformation to Scotland
  • Spain: Building of Escorial palace outside of Madrid
  • Switzerland: University of Geneva founded
    Calvin founds Geneva Academy (national convention of Huguenots)

Middle East

  • Ottoman Empire: Suleiman's son Selim has his brother Bajazid murdered in Persia