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Population: 509 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include William Baldwin A Marvellous History entitled Beware the Cat, Sir Thomas Hoby (translation of Baldassare), Thomas Sackville and Thomas Norton (historical tragedy), Julius Caesar Scaliger Poetics (posthumous), Thomas Norton (translation of Calvin's Institution of the Christian Religion),
  • Medicine: Gabriele Gallopois writes "Observationes anatomicae"
  • Military: Forerunners of hand grenades first made
  • Sports: Ruy Lopez develops in Spain the modern technique of chess playing
  • Deaths: Musician Louis Bourgeois, Arist and pupil of Michelangelo Alonso Berruguete,


  • General: English sea captain John Hawkins starts English slave trade when he takes 300 African slaves from a Portuguese ship bound for Brazil


  • Chile: Smallpox outbreak


  • India: Rise of Mughols under Akbar I
    Portuguese monks in Goa introduce printing to India


  • General: Tulips from Near East first come to Western Europe
  • Belgium: Cornelis Floris starts the Antwerp Town Hall
  • England: Mary Queen of Scots returns to Scotland to restore Catholicism - denied passage through England on returning from France – lands at Leith Scotland
    First Calvinist refugees from Flanders settle in England
    Merchant Taylors' School in London founded
    St. Paul's Cathedral in London badly damaged by fire
  • France: Edict of Orleans suspends persecution of Huguenots
  • Holy Roman Empire: Baltic states of the Order of the Teutonic Knights secularized
    Palladio creates Convent of the Carita in Venice
  • Italian States: Michelangelo starts the St. Maria degli Angeli in Rome
  • Poland: Creation of Duchy of Courland in Poland area
  • Russia: Basilica of St. Basil in Moscow founded
  • Scotland: Scottish Church ministers draw up confessions of faith based on Knox's works
    Mary, Queen of Scots rules as mother (the regent) passes on her rule
    Mary returns to Scotland to restore Catholicism
  • Spain: Madrid declared capital of Spain by Philip II