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Population: 510 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include John Foxe Book of Martyrs (religious persecution in England), Ambroise Pare makes "Cinq livres de chirurgie"
    Art includes Pieter Brueghel "Tower of Babel"
    Architecture includes John Shute creates "Firs and Chief Grounds of Architecture"
  • Religion: End of Catholic Council of Trent (third)
    Anglican Church established completely
  • Deaths: Reformer John Bale, Gothic architect Diego de Siloe, Calvin,


  • England: he term "Puritain" first used in England
    William Byrd made organist at Lincoln Cathedral
    English parliament passes acts for relief of the poor and for regulating apprentices (repealed 1814)
    General outbreak of plague in Europe kills over 20,000 people in London – English soldiers caught plague in France and bring it back
    Anglican church posts 39 articles – Church seems to be a blend of Protestantism and Catholic organization
  • France: Peace of Amboise ends first War of Religion in France – Huguenots granted limited toleration
    Charles IX of France declared of age at 13
    French army regains Le Havre
    Gerardus Mercator draws first accurate map of Lorraine
  • German States: Counter Reformation begins in Bavaria
  • Hungary: Maximilian II elected King of Hungary
  • Italian States: Giovanni da Bologna creates Neptune fountain in Bologna
  • Russia: First printing presses in Russia
    Ivan the Terrible conquers part of Livonia
  • Spain: Blossoming of Spanish mystic poetry – Teresa de Jesus – Luis de Granada – Juan de la Cruz – Luis de Leon
    Juan de Herrera begins to build the Escorial for Philip II of Spain