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Population: 511 Million*
  • Entertainment: Art includes Pieter Brueghel "Christ Carrying the Cross" (and son born)
    Music includes one of Andrea Amati's first violins made
  • Exploration: John Hawkins leaves on second voyage to New World
  • Medicine: Bartolommeo Eustachio creates "Opuscula anatomica"
  • Religion: Council of Trent's "Professio Fidei" confirmed by Pope Pius IV
    Scot's Psalter written
    Index librorum prohibitorum published after receiving papal approval
  • Science: Andreas Vesalius has death sentence commuted by making pilgrimage to the Holy Land
  • Births: William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, and Galileo Galilei
  • Deaths: Religious reformer John Calvin, Michelangelo Buonarotti, Physician and artist Andreas Vesalius, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I


  • Philippines: Spaniards occupy Philippines and build Manila


  • General: Peace of Troyes ends war between England and France
  • England: Robert Lord Dudley made Earl of Leicester
    English Merchant Adventurers Company granted new royal charter
    Horse-drawn coach introduced in England from Holland
    Plague outbreak
  • France: Catherine de' Medici presents son Charles IX to his subjects on three-month tour of France
    Philibert Delorme begins work on the Tuileries in Paris
  • Holy Roman Empire: Death of Ferdinand I the HRE succeeded by son Maximilian II to 1576
  • Italian States: Philip Neri founds Congregation of the Oratory in Rome
    Jacopo Tintoretto paints for the Scuola di San Rocco
  • Poland: Counter Reformation begins in Poland
  • Russia: Ivan IV of Russia forced to withdraw from Moscow regarding power struggle against boyars - reign of terror begins