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Population: 513 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include William Adlington translates The Golden Ass by Apuleius, Early prose comedy The Supposes, William Painter (translates) Palace of Pleasure Beautified, Jean Bodin Methodus ad facilem historiarum congitionem (philosophy of history),
    Art includes Pieter Brueghel "St. John the Baptist"
  • Religion: Heinrich Bullinger unites Calvinism with Zwinglianiam in second Helvetian Confession
    Cardinal Michaele Ghislieri Bosco becomes Pope Pius V (later saint)
  • Deaths: Ottoman Emperor Suleiman II the Magnificent during Hungarian siege, Botanist Leonhard Fuchs, Astrologer Nostradamus, Poet and composer Richard Edwards, Poetess Louise Labe, Composer Antonio de Cabezon, Mistress of Henry II of France Diane de Poitiers


  • General: Torko-Hungarian war renewed after 4-year peace
  • England: Parliament forbidden from discussing marriage of Elizabeth I
    Parliament attempts to force Elizabeth to name successor that is not Mary Queen of Scots
  • Germany: Death of Leonhard Fuchs the "Father of German Botany"
  • Holland: Calvinist riots in Netherlands against Spanish – Regent Margaret of Palma abolishes inquisition
  • Italian States: "Notizie Scritte" one of first newspapers appears in Venice
  • Poland: Sigismund III named king of Poland
  • Scotland: David Rizzo the confidential secretary of Mary Queen of Scots murdered in Holyrood House in Edinburgh
    Mary Queen of Scots gives birth to James - future king of England

Middle East

  • Ottoman Empire: Death of Suleiman the Magnificent of Ottoman Turks – empire begins to decline
    Selim II becomes sultan