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Population: 515 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Alfonso de Ercilla y Zuniga La Araucana (conquest of Chile), Richard Tottel translates Henry de Bracton's On the Laws and Customs of England,
    Art includes Hans Eworth's "Queen Elizabeth Confounding Juno"
  • Exploration: Mercator writes "Cosmographia" and map of the world for navigational use
  • Science: Tycho Brahe begins construction of celestial globe at Augsburg
    Galileo works for Medici court
  • Deaths: Poet Mikolaj Rej, Artist Pieter "Peasant" Brueghel the Elder, Composer Thomas Caustun


  • India: Akbar founds new Mogul capital at Fatehpur Sikri – blend of Muslim and Hindu architecture
    Emperor Akbar conerus Rajputana


  • England: Catholic rebellion in N England – sacking of Durham Cathedral
    Public lottery held in London to finance repairs to the port
  • Holy Roman Empire: Don John of Austria suppresses Morisco rebellion in Granada
  • Italian States: Pope Pius V makes Cosimo de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany
  • Lithuania: Creation of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to 1795
  • Poland: Sigismund II of Poland unites Poland with Lithuania – Union of Lubin
  • Portugal: 40,000 inhabitants of Lisbon die in carbuncular fever epidemic