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Population: 516 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include John Barber The Brus about Robert Bruce, Lodovico Castelvetro demands introduction of Arisotelian principles to contemporary drama, Robert Henryson The Moral Fables of Aesop, Roger Ascham the Scholemaster (on education), Blaise de Monluc Commentaries (on French politics), Thomas Kirchmeyer The Polish Kingdom, Abraham Ortelius publishes first modern atlas with 53 maps
    Art includes Nicholas Hillard (portrait of Queen Elizabeth I), Palladio "I Quattro libri dell archetettura", Tintoretto "Moses striking the rock"
    Music includes earliest known music festival in honor of St. Cecilia in Normandy, Culminating point of vocal polyphonic a capella style of music
  • Religion: Pope Pius V issues bull "Regnans in Excelis" excommunicating Elizabeth I and calling for her murder and war against England – Protestant Bond declares any who lifted hand against Elizabeth should be put to death
    "Missale Romanum" issued by Pius V
  • Deaths: Architect Jacopo Sansovino, Author François Bonivard, Earl of Moray (assassinated),


  • Sudan: Kanem-Borneo reaches height of kingdom power under Aloma Idris III, starts alliance with Ottomans for 40 years
  • West: Drought
    Slave revolt on Sâo Tomé off coast of West Africa


  • Brazil: Portuguese set up sugar plantations in Brazil
  • Caribbean: English "Sea Dogs" plunder Spanish gold
  • United States: Iroquois league forms


  • Japan: Japan opens port of Nagasaki to overseas trade under local daimyo (lord)


  • General: This decade Spanish defeated by Dutch on ice skates
  • Cyprus: Turks sack Nicosia in Cyprus
  • Denmark: Peace of Stettin – Denmark recognizes independence of Sweden
  • England: Pope Pius V issues bull "Regnans in Excelis" excommunicating Elizabeth I
    Bell foundry of Whitechapel in London founded
    Counselor Cecil tries to get pattern for rule in interregnum – Elizabeth opposes
    Mary Queen of Scots opposes in writing and Elizabeth signs warrant for Mary – Mary publicly beheaded as Catholic martyr – People start seeing royals as fallable
  • France: Peace of St. Germain-en-Laye ends third civil war in France – Huguenots gain amnesty
    Charles IX of France marries Elizabeth daughter of Maximilian II
    Margaret of Valois betrothed to Henry of Navarre
    Jean Antoine de Baif founds Academie de Poesie et de Musique in Paris
  • German States: Nuremberg postal services begin
  • Holland: Holland dikes break due to strong winds and 50,000 die
  • Holy Roman Empire: Imperial diet meets at Speyer
    Philip II marries Anne of Austria as fourth wife – dau of Maximilian II
  • Poland: Consensus of Sendomir – Calvinists Lutherans and Moravian Brothers of Poland ally against Jesuits
  • Russia: Ivan the Terrible executes almost all of his advisors in public
    Plague outbreak
    Ivan IV ravages Novgorod
    Fire in Moscow devastates city and 200,000 die
  • Scotland: Earl of Moray assassinated, succeeded as regent of Scotland by Earl of Lennox
  • Sweden: Peace of Stettin – Denmark recognizes independence of Sweden

Middle East

  • Ottoman Empire: Turks sack Nicosia in Cyprus
    Turks declare war on Venice