Population: Between 190 and 230 million*
  • Entertainment: Hindu epics begin to be written
    Earliest religious plays develop
  • Language: Sanskrit develops
  • Religion: This decade St. Anthony of Thebes (EGY) brings Christian hermits together – start of monasticism


  • Diocletian organizes local government in N Africa
    Axum kingdom in Africa
    Rise of Ghana as trading power in W. Africa - founded and ruled by Maga (Berber) dynasty until 770 (also called Gold Coast)
    Bantu cereal cultivators begin cattle herding in SE Africa


  • End of the Olmec Civilization
    Ritual ball games start in Mesoamerica
    Rise of the classic Mayan civilization
    Toltec Civilization


  • General: Buddhism introduced into SE Asia
  • China: Growing Buddhist influence in China
    Chinese use oil
  • India: India united under Gupta dynasty
    Fall of the Satavahanihara and rise of the Vakataka kingdom in India
  • Japan: Earliest Japanese states
    Japan learns how to make silk from China


  • Britain: Persecution of Christians reaches Britain
  • Eastern Europe: Christianity introduced in Armenia
  • German States: Separate developments of five Germanic dukedoms: Saxons, Franks, Alemanni, Thuringians and Goths
    Bowling becomes part of religious ritual in German monasteries
  • Italian States: Lombards begin move from Lower Elbe southward (to 568)
    Start of Ostrogoths to 554
  • Roman Empire: Palace of Diocletian in Ragusa (Dubrovnik) begun

Middle East

  • The A'ad kingdom, the Hadhramaut people, and Qataban people of Arabia end
    End of Atropatene kingdom in Iran


  • Beginning of early eastern Polynesian culture