59 - 50 B.C.



Population: Between 190 and 230 million*
  • Chronology: End of Helenistic Age (50 BC)
  • Entertainment: Cicero publishes "De oratore" (55 BC) "De republica" (54 BC)
    Oboe created in Rome (50 BC)
    Caesar or Cicero publishes "De bello Gallico" regarding Gallic War (51 BC)
  • History: Livy begins to write history of Rome (59 BC)
  • Religion: Bhagavad-Gita written (50 BC)
  • Marcus Aemilius Scaurus displays skeleton of "monster of Joppa" - probably a whale skeleton (58 BC)
  • Technology: Glass blowing perfected in Rome (50 BC)
  • Deaths: Helaman (57 BC), Moroni (56 BC), Roman poet Titus Lucretius Carus (55 BC), Catullus the Roman poet (54 BC), Roman politician Marcus Licinus Crassus by drinking molten gold (53 BC)


  • Egypt: Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XII (brother) rule Egypt (51 BC)


  • General: Death of Helaman (57 BC)
    Shiblon takes control of Nephite record and Moroni dies (56 BC)
    Hagoth the curious builds ship and leaves Bountiful (55 BC)
    Shiblon dies and record is kept by Helaman's son Helaman II (53 BC)
    Death of chief judge Pahoran - sons vie for seat (52 BC)
    Pahoran wins judgement seat but is killed by brother Paanchi and brother Pacumeni rules (52 BC)
    Helaman II becomes chief judge of Nephites (50 BC)


  • India: Bhagavad Gita written (50 BC)
  • Korea: Founding of Korean state (57 BC)
    Small independent kingdoms develop in non-Chinese parts of Korea (50 BC)


  • Belgium: Belgic tribal leader begins payments to Rome (54 BC)
  • Britain: First invasion by Julius Caesar (55 BC)
    Second invasion by Romans under Caesar Cassivellaunus - tribute paid to Rome (54 BC)
  • Gaul: Caesar named proconsul of Gaul (58 BC)
    Northern Gaul attacked and conquered (58-55-50 BC)
    End of Gallic Wars with 150,000 dead (52 BC)
    Julius Caesar's conquest (51-50 BC) - Gaul becomes part of Roman Empire (50 BC)
  • Roman Empire: Julius Caesar becomes sole consil of Rome although triumvirate in effect (59 BC)
    Increase of Roman influences (54 BC)
    New Julian forum erected (54 BC)
    Triumvirate Marcus Licinus Crassus dies at Battle of Carrhae fighting Parthians - forced to drink molten gold (53 BC)
    Wars of First Triumvirate ensue (53 BC)
    Pompey becomes consul in Rome (52 BC)
    Start of era of two triumvirates (50 BC)
    Julius Caesar becomes rival of Pompey - they negotiate but both seek sole power (50 BC)