1249 - 1200 B.C.


Family information unknown



Population: Perhaps 50 million*
  • Entertainment: Epic of Gilgamesh recorded in Cuneiform (1200 BC)
  • Religion: Considered the start of monotheism with departure of Israelites from Egypt (1200 BC)
    10 Commandments (or earlier) (1200 BC)
    Vedas written in India (1200 BC)
    Possible time of Zoroaster (Zarathustra) (1200 BC)
  • Warfare: End of Trojan War (1220 BC)
  • Deaths: Ramses II (1225 BC), Merneptah of Egypt (1215 BC)


  • Egypt: Death of Ramses II (1225 BC)
    Death of Merneptah (1215 BC) - Ramses III rules
    End of 19th and start of Egypt's 20th Dynasty (1205 or 1200 BC)
    Start of invasion of Sea Peoples (1200 BC)
    Possible time of Exodus (or earlier) (1200 BC)
  • West: Yams grown for food (1200 BC)


  • Central: Olmec resurgence and creation of ceremonial centers at Tres Zapotes (1200 BC)
  • North: Maize farmed in U.S. southwest (1200 BC)
  • South: Chavin culture grows in Peru (1200 BC)


  • China: Chinese create Logographic script (1200 BC)
  • East: Karasuk culture introduces advanced bronze in Asian steppes (1200 BC)
  • India: Aryans settle (1200 BC)


  • General: Iron Age reaches Europe (1200 BC)
  • Britain: Warrior class takes control (1200 BC)
  • Greece: Trojan War - raids on Aegean peoples causes trade to stop (1220 BC)
    Lion Gate of Mycenae built (1200 BC)
    Mycenaean culture collapses and Greek "Dark Ages" starts (later) (1200 BC)
    Emergence of Dorian Greeks (1200 BC)
    Start of later Lydia to 546 BC (1200 BC)
    Greeks destroy Troy after 10-year war (1200 BC)
  • Italian States: Mt. Etna erupts - active to 1928 (1226 BC)
    Earliest possible date for founding of Etruscan civilization (1200 BC)

Middle East

  • General: Hittite Empire suddenly laid waste by unknown people, Assyrians, or Sea Peoples (1200 BC)
  • Babylon: Assyrians conquer (1225 BC)
  • Palestine: First mention of Israel in Egyptian texts as Ramses II's son Merneptah defeates Israelites in battle (1232 BC)
    Period of the Judges (1200 BC)
    Hebrew tribes settle in Canaan (or earlier) (1232, 1200 BC)
  • Phoenicia: Start of golden age of Phoenicians (1200 BC)
  • Troy: Fall of Try in Trojan War (1225 BC)
    Mycenaeans attack Troy (1200 BC)