509 - 500 B.C.


Family information unknown



Population: Perhaps 100 million*
  • Entertainment: Satyr play introduced in Athens (500 BC)
    Ramayana - ancient Hindu poem - created (500 BC)
    Pindar writes (500 BC)
    Pythagoras writes (500 BC)
    Black figure style vase painting in Athens (500 BC)
    Sun Tzu writes The Art of War (500 BC)
  • History: Greek historian Hecataeus writes regarding the Celts (500 BC)
  • Medicine: Susrata performs cataract operations (500 BC)
    Greek Alcmaeon discovers Eustachian tubes (500 BC)
    Susruta in India proclaims mosquitoes spread malaria, but is ignored (500 BC)
    Chinese use moldy soybean curds as antibiotic to treat boils (500 BC)
  • Philosophy: End of pre-Socratic philosophers (500 BC)
  • Religion: Jainism developed in India to show how to escape illusions of the physical (500 BC)
    Jainism and Buddhism invade Hinduism (500 BC)
  • Science: Chinese philosopher han Fei-Tzu shows that food production is more important than population growth for survival (500 BC)
  • Warfare: Rome creates treaty with Carthage (508 BC)
  • Deaths: Pythagoreas - creator of number science (507 or 500 BC)


  • General: Semitic people from southern Arabia migrate to Eritrea and Ethiopia for trade (500 BC)
    Bantu-speaking people expand in East and West (500 BC)
  • Carthage: Hanno the Carthaginian travels down west coast of Africa (500 BC)
    Carthage (Tunis) vies with Greeks for Sicily (500 BC)
  • Egypt: Female "circumcision" begins (500 BC)
  • Ethiopia: Sabeans settle in Ethiopia - later kingdom of Axum (500 BC)


  • North America: Adenas people in Ohio valley reach peak civilization (500 BC)
    Mayan culture develops (500 BC)
    State formation begins in Oaxaca valley (500 BC)
    Monte Alban becomes political and cultural capital of Zapotecs in Mexico
  • South America: Paracas culture flourishes in Peru (500 BC)


  • General: Tsunami hits Poompuhar, Tamil nadu, India, and the Maldives (500 BC)
  • China: Start of "Era of Warring States"(500 BC)
    Jin becomesleading Chinese state (500 BC)
    Sun Tzu writes The Art of War (500 BC)
  • India: Great pestilence and famine extends during reign of Emperor Jei-chund to 443 BC (503 BC)


  • General: Celts spread across France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Britain (500 BC)
  • Britain: Celtic customs spread - Druids begin thousand year reign (500 BC)
  • Greece: Cleisthenes introduces democracy into Greece (508 BC)
    Spartans under Cleomenes try to restore aristocracy in Athens but Athenians put Cleisthenes (Kleisthenes) back into power (507 BC)
    Ionians revolt from Persia under Histiaeus and Aristagoras (500 BC)
    Theseum of Athens "Treasury of the Athenians" built at Delphi (500 BC)
    Theater of Delphi created (500 BC)
    Start of Peloponnesian League (500 BC)
    Black-figure base painting era (500 BC)
    Athens becomes free from tyrants (500 BC)
    End of Archaic Period of Greece - Classic Period begins including Greek plays (500 BC)
  • Italian States: Roman republic founded (traditional) (509 BC)
    Brutus becomes one of chief consuls (509 BC)
    Temple of Jupiter completed (509 BC)
    Etruscan king overthrown and semi-democracy reigns in the form of a senate (509 BC)
    League of Latin towns begins as last king is expelled (509 BC)
    Etruscan ruler Lars Porsena attacks Rome and heroic defense of bridge over the Tiber by Horatius Cocles (508 BC)
    End of Etruscan rule - Roman republic begins (500 BC)
    Roman dissatisfaction overthrows Etruscans (500 BC)
  • North: Frisian Kingdom (dutch/Germanic) on North Sea settled - see 650 AD (500 BC)
  • Sardinia: Sardinia captured by Greeks, Phoenicians, and Carthaginians (500 BC)

Middle East

  • General: Chaldeans (New Babylonians) conquered by Persians- Persians in power a thousand years (500 BC)
    Sea at lowest level - salt serves as unit of currency (500 BC)
  • Judaea: End of "Age of Prophets" in Israel (500 BC)
  • Persia: Darius I improves highway from Susa to Ephesus (500 BC)