19,999 - 10,000 B.C.


Family information unknown



Population: Perhaps 1-10 million*
  • Height of ice age (18K)
    Huts created with mammoth-bone roofs (16K)
    Coldest period of ice age ends (1500 BC)
    Start of last ice age (14K)
    Short ice age returns as weather patters destabilize (12.5K)
    Start of Holocene Epoch of Quaternary Period (11K)
    Retreat of last ice age (11.5-10K)
    Advanced stone tools found (10K)
    First human settlements (10K) First cast copper and hardened pottery (sun-dried brick) (10K) Plant cultivation and animal domestication - dogs, sheep, and goats first (10K)
    Start of private property and division of labor (10K)
    End of "Old Stone Age" and start of "New Stone Age" (10K)


  • Hunter-gatherers in Zaire (18K)
    Last rainy period in northern Africa (15K)
    Terra cotta figures made in Algeria (13K)
    Sahara inhabitable as rainfall increases (10K)
    Marked bone shows lunar phases in Zaire (10K)


  • Humans cross Alaska and settle in Americas (15 or 13K)
    Clovis in North America (11.5K)
    Paleo-Indians cover Western hemisphere (11K)
    Folsom culture begins to replace Clovis in North America (11K)
    Exploding comet over Canada causes extinction of megafauna such as mammoth and Smiodon and ends Clovis culture (10.9K)
    Colossal flood in Washington State as ice melts (10K)
    Humans reach tip of South America - evidence found in Chile (11-10K)


  • Earliest human sculpture in far East (18K)
    Spear hunters in Indonesia (15K)
    Hunter-gathers present (13K)
    Cave dwellings in Nagasaki Japan (11K)
    Pottery made in Japan (12-10.7K)
    End of Bering Strait migration period (10K)


  • Cave paintings in lascaux France (15K)
    Spanish cave paintings (12K)
    Mastadons roam Siberia (12K)
    North European and Greek cave dwellers make obsidian points (11K)

Middle East

  • Wild cereal gathered near Lake Kinneret (Galilee) (17K)
    Dogs domesticated in Iraq or Persia (12K)
    Evidence of grain storage in Mesopotamia (11.5K)
    Natufian hunter-gatherers harvest cereals in Syria (10K)
    Sun-dried brick found in Jericho (10K)


  • Cave dwellers in Australia (18K)
    Rock paintings in Australia (17K)
    Antarctic sea ice starts melting (17K)