10 - 1 MYA


Family information unknown



Population: Unknown - hominids to Homo erectus
  • Chronology: End of Miocene Epoch and start of Pliocene (5.3 MYA)
    End of Neogene (Late Tertiary) Period and start of Quaternary Period and Pleistocene Epoch (2.6 MYA)
  • Climate: Change in ocean currents due to joining of North and South America (4 MYA)
    Formation of Arctic ice cap and cool, dry climate spreads grasslands and long-legged grazers (3 MYA)
    Global cooling and glaciation (2.58 MYA)
    Ice age begins (2 MYA)
    Start of Sherwin Glaciation (1.3 MYA)
  • Humans: Bipedalism starts (5.3 MYA)
    Ardipithecus appears (4.4 MYA)
    Australopithecus anamensis appears (4.1 MYA)
    Ramapithecus exists (4MYA)
    Development of hominid bipedalism (4 MAY)
    Australopithicenes such as "Lucy" walk the earth and use tools (3.7 - MYA)
    Homo habilus manufactures stone tools (2.4 MYA)
    Homo erectus begins migrating out of Africa (1.7 MYA)
    Disappearance of Australopithecines (1 MYA)
    Homo erectus begins to use fire (1 MYA)
  • Science: Large land animals and birds present (1.3 MYA)
  • Technology: Stone tools widely used (2 MYA)


  • General: Homo habilus manufactures tools (2.4 MYA)
  • East Africa: Laetoli eruption captures Australopithecine footprints (3.5 MYA)


  • General: Eruptions and uplift connect isthmus of Panama - allowing species interactions and migrations (6 MYA)
    North and South America join (4 or 3.4 MYA)
  • North America: Yellowstone caldera explosion - largest? (2.1 MYA)
    Yellowstone erupts (1.3 MYA)


  • General: Mediterranean is dried up - Straits of Gibraltar burst and fills over the next 100 years (6 MYA)
    East Europe: Volcanic eruption in the area of Georgia/Caucus Mountains (1.81 MYA)