99 - 10 MYA


Family information unknown



Population: Unknown - Late Cretaceous to early hominids
  • Animals: Modern sharks (90 MYA)
    Tyrannosaurus rex thrives (68 MYA)
    Extinction of 85% of land species (65 MYA)
    Placental mammals (63 MYA)
    Rats, mice, and squirrels, herons and storks, earliest hoofed ungulates (60 MYA)
    Rabbits and hares (56 MYA)
    Primitive whales and monkeys (50 MYA)
    Rhinos, camels, and early horses (45 MYA)
    Trunked elephants (34 MYA)
    Koalas evolve (27.8 MYA)
    Modern mammal and bird families develop, including raccoons, apes (23 MYA)
    Parrots and Pigeons evolve (20 MYA)
  • Chronology: End of Mesozoic Era and start of Cenozoic Era with Paleogene (Tertiary) Period and Paleocene Epoch (65 MYA)
    Start of Eocene Epoch of Paleogene Period (Tertiary) (56 MYA)
    Start of Oligocene Epoch of Paleogene (Tertiary) Period - time of diversification (34 MYA)
    End of Paleogene (Tertiary) Period and start of Neogene (Late Tertiary) Period and Miocene Epoch (23 MYA)
  • Climate: End of time of global warming (90 MYA)
    Tropical climate covers the land (65 MYA)
    Major global warming with North Pole temp at 73 degrees Fahrenheit, and CO2 concentration at 2000 ppm
    Global cooling creates permanent Antarctic ice sheet (36 MYA)
    Continental interiors dry, favoring grasslands (23 MYA)
    "Middle Miocene disruption" with cold forests lowering CO2 amounts (23 MYA)
  • Human evolution: Primates form (32 MYA)
    Proconsul forms - prosimian (25 MYA)
    Apes develop (23 MYA)
    Start of chimp / hominid split (20 MYA)
    Chimpanzee and hominid lines have fully split (12 MYA)
    Ramapithecus exists (10 MYA)
  • Science: Flowering plants (63 MYA)
    Modern grasses appear (34 MYA)


  • North America: Chicxulub meteor hits the Yucatan (65 MYA)
    Rocky Mountains develop about this time (60 - 56 MYA)
    Meteor impace in Virginia (36 MYA)
    Fish Canyon (La Garita) supervolcano in Colorado erupts (27.8 MYA)


  • Deccan Traps erupt (67 MYA)
    End of Deccan Traps eruptions (63 MYA)
    India meets Asia forming the Himalayas (50 MYA)
    Meteor impact in Russia (36 MYA)
    African-Arabian plate joins to Asia (23 MYA)


  • Russian meteor impact (70 MYA)
    Alps form after this time (56 MYA)


  • General: Australia separates from Antarctica (45 MYA)