499 - 250 MYA


Family information unknown



Latest Cambrian to the end of the Permian
  • Animals: Trilobites, crinoids, sea creatures (488 MYA)
    Fish arise as first vertebrates (450 MYA)
    Diversity of sea creatures, sea scorpions, armored jawless fish (444 MYA)
    Millipedes, land animals, coral reefs, jawed fish (420 MYA)
    Wingless insects, squid-like creatures, early sharks (416 MYA)
    Primitive sharks, vertebrates with legs such as Tiktaalik, amphibians first appear (375 MYA)
    Lobe-finned fish and increased diversity (359 MYA)
    Rise of amphibians, primitive insects, wings, amniote eggs, land vertebrates (350 MYA)
    Giant arthropods - super dragonflies (318 BC)
    Sudden radiation of winged insects and amphibians (318 MYA)
    First reptiles (310 MYA)
    Advanced amphibians (300 MYA)
    Sail-backed synapsids like Dimetrodon appear
    Spread of reptiles (299 MYA)
    Beetles and weevils (280 MYA)
    Dinosaurs, mammals, crocodiles develop, modern fish, corals, modern insect clades, Petrosaurs, reptiles spread (251 MYA)
  • Chronology: Early Ordovician - end of Cambrian (488 MYA)
    Middle Ordovician begins (472 MYA)
    Start of late epoch of Ordovician (460 MYA)
    Start of Llandovery / Alexandrian Epoch of Silurian (444 MYA)
    Start of Wenlock Epoch of Silurian (428 MYA)
    Ludlow / Cayugan Epoch of Silurian (423 MYA)
    Final Silurian Epoch - the Pridoli (419 MYA)
    Silurian / Devonian boundary (416 MYA)
    Middle Epoch of Devonian (398 MYA)
    Late Devonian Epoch (385 MYA)
    Devonian / Carboniferous (Mississippian) boundary (359 MYA)
    Middle Mississippian (326 BC)
    Late Mississippian - final epoch begins (326 MYA)
    Mississippian / Pennsylvanian boundary (318 MYA)
    Middle Epoch of Pennsylvanian Period (312 MYA)
    Start of late Epoch of Pennsylvanian Period (307 MYA)
    End of Pennsylvanian and start of Permian Period and Cisuralian Epoch - marked with formation of Pangaea (299 MYA)
    Start of Guadalupian Epoch of Permian Period (270 MYA)
    Start of Lopingian Epoch of Permian Period (260 MYA)
    End of Permian Period and Paleozoic Era - start of Mesozoic Era and Triassic Period (251 BC)
  • Climate: Fall in atmospheric carbon dioxide (488 MYA)
    Andean-Saharan ice age begins (450 MYA)
    Mass extinction of marine life - 49 percent of fauna disappears (443 MYA)
    Climate stabilizes (420 MYA)
    Earth's day is 21.8 hours (416 MYA)
    Atmospheric oxygen rises to 16% (375 MYA)
    Mass extinction of 70% of marine species over next 20 million years - anoxia and cooling (347 MYA)
    Global cooling reduces surface temps from 93 degrees F to about 78 degrees (374 MYA)
    Start of the Karoo ice age (350 BC)
    Highest oxygen levels at 30% (318 BC)
    End of glaciation period - earth cool and dry (299 MYA)
    End of Karoo Ice Age (260 MYA)
    Volcanoes in Siberia release CO2, methane, and hydrogen sulfide, Oxygen levels drop from 30 to 12 percent
    Mass extinction of ocean dwellers 90% and 70% of land organisms - pangaea breaks up (251 BC)
  • Earth: Green plants and fungi on land (488 MYA)
    Vascular plants (444 MYA)
    Waxy algae begin to live on land (430 MYA)
    First ferns and seed plants (416 MYA)
    Shallow seas cover parts of continents (350 MYA)
    Rooted plants (ferns) and primitive trees develop (359 - 3550 MYA)
    Earth's day is 22.4 hours long (318 BC)
    Coal forests and sea regression due to glaciation (318 MYA)
    Pangaea forms (275 MYA)
    Pangaea starts to break (251 MYA)
    Mass extinction - possibly due to meteor impact in Antarctica (251 MYA)


  • Appalachians forms as a result of collision between North America, Africa, and Europe (375 MYA)
    Volcanism in Siberia releases gasses into atmosphere and dropping ocean oxygen (251 MYA)


  • Glaciation of Gondwana (443 MYA)
    Glaciation of Gondwana, Meteor impace in Australia (359 MYA)