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Population: 417 Million*
  • Entertainment: "Easter Play of Muri" starts German drama
    Start of high Gothic period of German art
    Yukinaga Shinanozenji writes epic
    Novelette Romance of the Rose written
    Start of choral Passion singers
    Small, portable organ invented
    Vincent of Beauvais publishes an encyclopedia
  • Fashion: Hats become the trend
  • Religion: End of war between Holy Roman Empire and papal allies
    Pope Innocent IV gains independence for Papacy
  • Science: Jordanus Rufus publishes veterinary manual
    Roger Bacon invents magnifying glass
  • Technology: Goose quills used for writing
  • Warfare: Gunpowder introduced to Europe
  • Deaths: Fibonacci, Frederick II dies and is succeeded by Conrad IV HRE


  • Chad: Kanem kingdom in Lake Chad region begins to break up
  • Egypt: Ayyubids out of power in Egypt - last leader murdered as Mamluks from central Asia take power
    Start of decline of Coptic language and increase of mosque building
    Saracens capature Louis IX in Egypt but he is ransomed


  • North America: Colorado cliff buildings built
    Towns and ceremonial centers built in Mississippi basin
    Maya revival as new capital built at Mayapan
  • South America: Chimu people expand in Peru


  • India: Jain Temple built in Mount Abu
    Johannes Church in Thorn (Torun) in India


  • France: Saracens capture Louis IX, ransomed
    Establishment of four national colleges at Paris University
  • Germany: Building begins on St. Thomas Church in Leipzig
    Synagogue built at Worms
  • Holy Roman Empire: Death of Frederick II and end of war between HRE and papal allies, Conrad IV HRE to 1254
  • Italian States: Commercial and industrial boom in northern and central Italian cities
  • Spain: Synagogue built in Toledo
  • Sweden: Valdeman I becomes King of Sweden

Middle East

  • Damietta surrendered to crusaders
  • Seventh Crusade kills 10,000