2599 - 2500 B.C.


Family information unknown



Population: Perhaps 27 million*
  • Chronology: End of the New Stone Age / Bronze Age and beginning of Iron Age as man learn to cast iron (2500 BC)
  • Language: Sumerians develop 500 symbol alphabet (2500 BC)
  • Medicine: Huang Ti produces first medical text Nei Ching
  • Technology: Potter's wheel invented in China (2500 BC)
  • Trade: Trade units of length, weight, and capacity legally fixed (2500 BC)
    Trade between Babylon and India founded (2500 BC)


  • General: Desertification of the Sahara sends herders to its edges (2500 BC)
  • Egypt: Start of the reign of Pepi II of Egypt - longest ruling monarch (2566 BC)
    Building of the Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza (2550 BC)
    Approximate end of Pyramid construction in Egypt (2525 BC)
    Building of the pyramids and Sphinx at Giza (2550 or 2500 BC)


  • General: Corn becomes diet staple in the Americas
  • Central: Mesoamerical settlements see cities of 4000 (2500 BC)
  • South America: Paloma site in Chilca River valley in Peru abandoned (2500 BC)


  • China: First medical text produced (2595 BC)
    Yao dynasty (2500 BC)
  • India: Rise of the Mohenjo-Daro and harappa people in India
    Rise of Indus civilization in Pakistan complete with writing (2500 BC)


  • Central Europe: Unetice culture begins in central Europe (2500 BC)
  • Crete: Knossos founded by Minoans (2500 BC)
  • France: Beaker culture from low countries reach france (2500 BC)
  • Scotland: Skara Brae in Scotland destroyed (2500 BC)
  • Western Europe: Bell Beaker cultures appear in Western Europe (2500 BC)

Middle East

  • General: People found at Ebla (2500 BC)
  • Palestine: Canaanite tribes in palestine (2500 BC)
  • Syria: People of Syria trade with Mediterranean peoples (2500 BC)