409 - 400 B.C.


Family information unknown



Population: About 162 million*
  • Climate: Start of mild weather in Europe to 1300 AD (400 BC)
  • Entertainment: Euripides writes "Iphigenia in Aulis" (407 BC)
    Aristophanes writes "The Frogs" (405 BC)
    Xenophon writes (401 BC)
    Etruscan bronze sculpture of mars created (400 BC)
    Aristophanes makes up 170 letter word in a play (400 BC)
  • Philosophy: Plato becomes pupil of Socrates (407 BC)
  • Science: Herodotus relates griffin myth (400 BC)
  • Technology: Crossbow invented in China (400 BC)
  • Warfare: Athenians capture Byzantium (408 BC)
    End of Great Peloponnesian War (404 BC)
    End of a century of Persian-Greek Wars with 40,000 dead (401 BC)
  • Deaths: Euripides (406 BC)
    Sophocles chokes on a grape (406 or 405 BC)
    Darius II of Persia (405 - 404 BC), Alcibiades murdered in exile by orders of Sparta (404 BC)


  • East: Iron working begin in East African highlands (400 BC)
  • Egypt: Anyrtaeus of Sais becomes king of Egypt in 28th Dynasty (404 BC)
  • Ethiopia: City of Axum founded (400 BC)
  • West: Copper smeltering begins in mauritania in West Sahara (400 BC)


  • Central America: Spread of Chavin art styles in Mesoamerica (400 BC)
    Olmecs in steep decline (400 BC)
    Farmers occupy Tiahuanaco near Lake Titicaca in Bolivia (400 BC)
  • North America: Eruption of Popocatepetl volcano in Lake Texcoco Mexico (400 BC)


  • China: Period of Warring States (403 BC)
    Yellow River flood (400 BC)
    Breakup of the Jin State (400 BC)
    Start of Era of Warring States as Zhou Dynasty ends (400 BC)
  • India: Indus valley flood (400 BC)


  • Britain: City of London founded (probably 400 AD) (400 BC)
    Parisii people migrate to Britain (400 BC)
  • Greece: Alcibiades the Athenian general stops revolt (407 BC)
    Erechtheum completed on Acropolis at Athens (407 BC)
    Town of Rhodes built (407 BC)
    Athens rejects Spartan peace offer (406 BC)
    Spartan navy under Lysander destroys Athenian navy of Aegospotami - end of Second Peloponnesian war with 100,000 dead (405 BC)
    Spartans capture Athens - Government of the Thirty Tyrants (404 BC)
    Athenian democracy restored by Pausanius and Thrasybulus expels 30 tyrants (403 BC)
    Retreat of the ten thousand under Xenophon (400 BC)
    Plague begins in Athens (400 BC)
    Height of Greek civilization (400 BC)
  • Italian States: Gauls settle in Po valley (400 BC)
    Etruscan power declines (400 BC)
    Latin League forms a loose federation in lower Italy (400 BC)
    Start of Italy's salt road (400 BC)
  • Malta: Carthagenians occupy Malta (400 BC)
  • Sicily: Carthage begins invasion of Sicily (409 BC)

Middle East

  • Arabia: Start of Qataban people of Arabia to 300 AD (400 BC)
  • Mesopotamia: Start of Caucasian Iberia in north to 500 AD (Georgia region) (400 BC)
  • Persia: Death of darius II of Persia - Artaxerxes rules (404 BC)
    Mithridates is condemned for the murder of Cyrus the Younger - survives torture by insects 17 days (401 BC)
    Greek army under Xenophon defeated at Cunaxa in revolt against Artaxerxes II of Persia - retreat of the Ten Thousand (400 BC)
  • Turkey: Athenians capture Byzantium (408 BC)


  • General: Navigation improves (400 BC)