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Population: 462 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include William Dunbar writes allegorical prothalamium in honor of James IV's marriage, English translation of Kempi's Imitation of Christ
    Art includes da Vinci "Mona Lisa" ("La Gioconda"), Dürer in Wittenberg, Filippino Lippi "Virgin and Saints", Grunewald paints "The Mockery of Christ"
  • Fashion: Pocket handkerchiefs first come into use
  • Religion: Death of Pope Alexander VI (Borgia) – Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini elected Pope Pius II – dies – Guiliano della Rovere Albisola elected Pope Julius II - nephew of Sixtus IV
    Martin Luther becomes a monk
  • Deaths: Pope Alexander VI (Borgia) via plague-poisoned message, Pope Pius II, Prince Arthur of England, Elizabeth of York


  • Zanzibar becomes Portuguese colony


  • General: First hospital in western hemisphere by Spanish
  • Mexico: Montezuma becomes ruler of Aztecs


  • General: Gonzalo de Cordoba defeats French army and enters Naples and completes Spanish victory at Battle of the Garigliano
    Poland surrenders left bank of Dnieper River to Russia
    Battles of Cerignola and Garigliano – Spain defeats France
  • Bulgaria: End of an independent stage of Trubczewsk in Bulgaria (Volga)
  • England: Henry Prince of Wales betrothed to Catherine of Aragon
    William Warham becomes last bishop of Canterbury of the pre-reformation church
    Canterbury Cathedral finished
    Henry VII's chapel in Westminster Abbey begun
    Oldest son, Prince Arthur, dies and Prince Henry becomes heir
  • German States: War of Succession between Bavaria and Palatinate starts
  • Holy Roman Empire: Venice abandons Lepanto and signs peace treaty with Turks
  • Italian States: Lucrezia Borgia marries Duke of Ferrara
    Copernicus made doctor of Canon law at Ferrara
    Pope demolishes old St. Peter's and plans new church at renaissance style architecture
  • Scotland: James IV of Scotland marries Margaret, dau. Of Henry VII of England
  • Spain: La Casa Contrataccion "Colonial office" founded in Madrid to deal with American affairs

Middle East

  • Ottoman Empire: Venice abandons Lepanto and signs peace treaty with Turks