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Population: 470 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Bibbiene (Italian comedy), Niccolo Machiavelli (Italian comedy) and The Prince
    Art includes Michelangelo "Moses"
  • Exploration: Vasco Nuñez de Balboa sights the Pacific
  • Religion: Death of Giuliano della Rovere (Pope Julius II) – Giovanni de' Medici elected Pope Leo X (age 37) - start of lavish spending, bankruptcy within two years, simony (selling of church property) and licensing of brothels - Boy painted with gold paint as part of celebration - he dies
    Selling indulgences to construct St. Peter’s Basilica
  • Deaths: James IV of Scotland (in battle), Pope Julius II, Edmund Earl of Sussex (executed)


  • General: Vasco Nuñez de Balboa sights the Pacific
  • Central America: Balboa crosses Panama
  • North America: Juan Ponce de Leon discovers Florida


  • China: Portuguese expedition under Gorge Alvarez reaches Canton


  • General: Treaty of Mechlin – Maximilian I Henry VIII the pope and Ferdinand of Aragon agree to invade France
    English defeat Scots at Battle of Flodden (Field) - James IV killed with most of nobility and clergy
  • Denmark: Christian II named King of Denmark and Norway
  • France: French king Louis XII expelled from Italy
  • German States: Peasants' revolts in Wurttenberg and Black Forest
    Tilman Reimenschneider finishes tomb of Emperor Henry II at Bamberg Cathedral
  • Italian States: Raphael designs excavation of ancient Rome
    Battle of Novara – French driven out of Italy
    Giuliano rules Medici dynasty as brother made pope
  • Scotland: Death of James IV of Scotland at battle of Flodden Field - beginning of rule of James V – Margaret Tudor assumes regency
  • Switzerland: Appenzel joins Swiss Confederation
  • Vatican City: Pope Leo X starts sculpture gallery at Vatican