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Population: 472 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Ludovico Ariosto, Anthology of Spanish-Portuguese poems, Sir Anthony Fitzherbert (digest of court cases), Sir Thomas More Utopia, Josquin des Pris (third book of Masses), Peter Martyr Decades on New-World discoveries, Machiavelli The Prince
    Art includes Michelangelo "Moses", Raphael "The Sistine Madonna", Titian "The Assumption"
    Music includes first engraving of music on plates in Italy
  • Religion: Erasmus publishes New Testament with Greek and Latin texts
    Group of cardinals attempt to assassinate Pope – Pope warned and conspirators killed
  • Deaths: Artist Giovanni Bellini, Artist Heironymus Bosch, Vladislav II of Bohemia and Hungary, Explorer Diaz de Solis


  • Egypt: Selim I defeats Egyptian forces near Aleppo at Battle of Marjdabik and annexes Syria - war to 1517


  • Argentina: Death of Diaz de Solis while searching Argentina for passage to Pacific
  • Mexico: De Soto leaves Spain for Central Mexico


  • General: Treaty of Freiburg – perpetual peace between France and Swiss
    Dyestuff indigo comes to Europe
    Treaty of Noyon between France and Spain – French relinquish claim to Naples
    Coffee introduced to Europe
  • Czechoslovakia: Death of Vladislav II of Bohemia and Hungary
  • England: First child born to Henry VIII – future Queen Mary
    Corpus Christi College founded at Oxford
  • France: Concordat at Bologna between Pope Leo X and Francis I – France secures independence in ecclesiastical appointments
    Da Vinci goes to France
  • Holland: Franz von Taxis made postmaster-general of Netherlands
  • Italian States: Giuliano De Medici named a cardinal and Lorenzo II rules Medici clan
  • Spain: Archduke Charles (later Emperor) (grandson) succeeds as King of Spain (and Burgundy, Belgium and Netherlands) on death of Ferdinand II
    Hapsburgs win control of Spain through marriage

Middle East

  • Ottoman Empire: COnquests spread through Arabia to Africa
  • Palestine: Ottomans gain control
  • Persia: Ottomans defeat the Mamlukes, allied with Persia, at Marj Dabiq which leads to conquest of Syria and Palestine, Damascus falls to Turks
  • Syria: Selim I defeats Egyptian forces near Aleppo and annexes Syria