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Population: 501 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Sir Thomas More Utopia translated into English from Latin,
    Art includes Titian creates Philip II portrait
  • Science: Pierre Belon writes "Historie naturelle des estranges poisons"
    Konrad von Gesner writes treatise on modern zoology "Historia animalium"


  • Mexico: Zapotec Kingdom submits to Spain giving them control of Oaxaca
  • Peru: University of Lima founded


  • General: Bayinnaung inherits Burmese throne and overruns Thailand
  • Japan: End of mission of Jesuit St. Francis Xavier


  • General: Treaty of Friedewalde between Saxony and France
  • England: First licensing of alehouses and taverns in England and Wales
    Archbishop Cranmer puclished Forty-two articles of religion
    Last major outbreak of "The Sweat" in England – viral pulmonary disease
  • German States: Jews persecuted in Bavaria
  • Hungary: Turkey and Hungary at war to 1562
  • Italian States: Jesuits found Collegio Romano in Rome as Papal University
    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina made director of music at St. Peter's in Rome
  • Malta: Tornado kills 600

Middle East

  • Ottoman Empire: Turks fail to capture Malta but take Tripoli
    Turkey and Hungary at war to 1562