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Population: 507 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Margaret of Navarre Heptameron tales, Zohar a cabbalistic work of Jewish mysticism printen, John Knox Firs Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women (about Queen Mary and possibly Elizabeth),
    Art includes Brueghel "Children's Games"
    Music includes Gioseffo Zarlino - defines modern major and minor scales
  • Religion: Pope bans expansion of any country but Spain - England goes against orders
    Pius IV pope to 1565
  • Deaths: Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Scholar Julius Caesar Scaliger, "Bloody" Queen Mary,


  • Mexico: Flu outbreak
  • Peru: Flu outbreak


  • England: Queen Mary becomes ill but imagines she is pregnant again – in her later will she names Elizabeth her heir (but couldn't write the name) – dies at 42 and Elizabeth rules
    Catholic legislation repealed
    Thomas Gresham suggests reforms of English currency "Gresham Law"
    Sir William Cecil appointed principal Secretary of State
    Because Pope banned overseas expansion of anyone but Spain, England takes it up with new fervor - England begins to prey on Spanish ships - sea dogs - popular English "sport"
  • France: Calais retaken by French
  • German States: University of Jena founded
    Hamburg Exchange founded
  • Holy Roman Empire: Death of Charles V - Ferdinand I assumes title of Holy Roman Empire
  • Portugal: Portuguese introduce Europeans to habit of taking snuff
  • Russia: Anthony Jenkinson travels to Bokhara (Islamic)
  • Scotland: Mary Queen of Scots marries the Dauphin future Francis II of France