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Population: 509 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Rabelais Pantagruel (posthumous), Torwuato Tasso Rinaldo,
    Art includes Pieter Brueghel "Two Chained Monkeys", Tintoretto "Christ at the Sea of Galilee", Paolo Veronese "The Marriage at Cana"
  • Religion: Third session of the counsel of Trent reconvenes
  • Deaths: Sebastian I of Portugal, Novelist Matteo Bandello, Composer Adrian Willaert, Surgeon Pierre Franco - performer of bladder and cataract surgeries


  • East: Drought at horn of AFR ends after 19 years
  • West: Sir John Hawkins starts English slave trade in W Africa


  • General: John Hawkins and Drake make first journey to the New World and begins slave trade between Guinea and West Indies
  • North America: French attempt to colonize Florida, Carolinas


  • India: Rajah of Jaipur submits to Akbar the Great


  • General: English troops occupy Le Havre
  • England: Queen Elizabeth I becomes dangerously ill from smallpox
    English articles of Religion of 1552 reduced to 39 articles
    Hall of the Middle Temple in London built
  • France: 1200 French Huguenots slain at Massacre of Vassy – first French war of religion to 1598 - 60 killed by Guise family during church service
  • Holy Roman Empire: Emperor Ferdinand I signs eight-year truce with Suleiman I of Turkey
    Maximilian son of Ferdinand I becomes King of Bohemia
  • Ireland: Shane O'Neill rebels in Ireland – Earl of Tyrone leads two unsuccessful rebellions against England
  • Italian States: Gasparo Bertolotti de Salo moves to Brescia to become first great Italian violin maker
  • Portugal: Death of Sebastian I of Portugal

Middle East

  • Ottoman Empire: Emperor Ferdinand I signs eight-year truce with Suleiman I of Turkey