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Population: 512 Million*
  • Entertainment: Writers include Pierre de Ronsard Elegies, Giambattista Cinzio Giraldi (collection of moral and love tales), Arthur Golding (translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses), Thomas Cooper Thesaurus linguae Romanae et Britannicae, Pierre de la Place Histoire de nostre temps
    Art includes Pieter Brueghel "A Country Wedding", Giovanni da Bologna "Sampson", Tintoretto "Flight into Egypt"
    Music includes Palestrina "Missa Papae Marcelli"
  • Religion: Jacobus Anconcio writes "Stratagemata Satanae" advocating religious toleration
    Pope Pius IV dies
  • Science: Bernardino Telesio writes "De rerum natura" foreshadowing empirical methods of science
    Gesner publishes book of fossil objects
  • Deaths: Zoologist Konrad von Gesner, Pope Pius IV, Composer Cyprien de Rore,


  • Brazil: Rio de Janeiro founded by Portugese
  • North America: St. Augustine, FL founded by Spain under Pedro Menendez de Aviles to stop French colonization


  • England: Royal College of Physicians in London empowered to carry out human dissections
    Pencils manufactured in England
    Sir Thomas Gresham founds Royal Exchange in London
    Sir John Hawkins introduces sweet potatoes and tobacco in England
  • Italian States: Torquato Tasso made court poet at Ferrara
    Palladio creates S. Giorgio Maggiore in Venice
  • Russia: Ivan the Terrible starts "reign of terror" and sets out to destroy power of nobles
    Ivan IV of Russia reforms legal code
  • Scotland: Mary Queen of Scots marries Henry Lord Darnley her cousin
  • Switzerland: First known use of pencils

Middle East

  • Malta: Knights of St. John under Jean de La Valette defend Malta from Turks – Spanish troops arrive and Turks withdraw siege
    Christian leader Jean Parisot de la Vallette founds Valletta Malta
  • Ottoman Empire: Suleiman orders attack on Malta to exterminate Christians - unsuccessful - "Great Siege" ensues